ronaldduncan

Archive for the ‘Physics’ Category

Duncan Conjecture

In big bang, black hole, Physics on August 28, 2010 at 9:05 am

Last year I had an insight into how matter escaped from the black hole at the start of the Universe.

It seemed brilliant to me!

So I did a bit of research into the current state of the art, and checked my membership of the Institute of Physics.

I am now a lapsed Chartered Physist.

I forgot to pay my dues back in 2003 or so, and given that it has taken me a year to have the time to think about my insight again.  I am very unlikely to either have time to go through the hoops to re-establish my status as a Charted Physicist or do the required research to validate my insight.

So here is my insight.

The known facts are that the universe started from a “Big Bang”, and that when large amounts of matter comes together you have a black hole, and that http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawking_radiation decreases as the mass of the black hole increases.

The implication is that some thing different must have happened for the universe to exist and our current matter to have escaped from the black hole at the origin of the universe.

The other key observation is that we live an an asymmetric universe.  i.e. Our universe is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons as opposed to antiparticles.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang#Baryon_asymmetry and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon_asymmetry

The final element is that as energy levels increase larger mass particles become stable and the predominant form of matter.

My conjecture is as follows;

At very high temperatures there exists a very massive particle(escape particle) that is able to tunnel out of a high energy black hole.  We know that the initial black hole must have had very high mass, surface gravity and temperature.  Normally the surface gravity would limit the radiation temperature,  and the question is how evaporation occurred given this limit..

The conjecture is that big bang occurs when the black hole reaches an internal temperature and energy that allows the escape particles to exit by quantum tunnelling.  Theory predicts that for small black holes the evaporation is very quick generating a gama ray burst at the end.

If there is a particle with a high enough energy that it is more likely to escape than not, there could have been a very quick phase of evaporation of the original black hole.  Until the internal pressure and temperature reduced to a level where escape particles where no longer produced.

Followed by a series of energy releases as the escape particle broke down into lower energy particles until we reached observable particles like bosons, quarks and baryons (protons, neutrons etc)

The assumption is that quantum tunnelling produced an escape particle and an anti escape particle, and an imbalance could account for the observed Baryon Asymmetry.

Because the evaporation would be a form of black body radiation it would be consistent with the observed cosmic back ground radiation.

Proof of the conjecture, would be discovery of the remnant blackhole, since as the mass and energy decreased at some point it would become a normal if very large black hole and stop emitting.

This might be observable as a void, combined with gravitation lensing of objects on the other side, since it would have swept up the matter that did not escape a sufficient distance. during the 377,000 years current theory predicts from the initial singularity to the start of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Eternity

In Physics on January 27, 2010 at 11:24 pm

In his novel The Picturegoers, David Lodge gives a graphic description of infinity as it applies to time: “Think of a ball of steel as large as the world, and a fly alighting on it once every million years. When the ball of steel is rubbed away by the friction, eternity will not even have begun.”

It give a nice feeling of what infinity means.

However from a physics point of view there are a couple of little issues.

If the ball of steel is surrounded by air, you have an atmosphere with a lot more friction than your fly landing, so it gets rubbed away a lot quicker.

If it is not surrounded by air, the fly will not be able to fly and will hit the sphere with an almighty splat. You could count the millions of years by the splat marks. The sphere might get melted and a bit of debris knocked off by each splat, but the gravity of the sphere is very high so none of the debris will escape and you will end up with a steel sphere covered in desiccated fly. The fly will dry up and freeze in the vacuum of space before it hits the sphere.

And who is going to shunt the poor fly out every million years into space to fall onto the sphere with a silent crunch.

Someone suggested using this analogy, to seriously contemplate eternity.  I think I understand eternity, and infinity, and using this analogy got me thinking about a sphere the size of the world, and how a fly could land on it.  At which point the analogy broke down.

Another analogy would be to use human history assuming that we are now at 2,400,000 years where 1 hour is 100,000 years.  Then recorded history is a minute or two.  You then expand that up to the history of the earth, which is much longer, and you have a period of time that if it were a 24hour atomic clock powered by the energy of the sun, then eternity is much longer than the life of the clock and this history of the earth is much less than the first second of the sun powered clock.